By Bernard Weiner
For many years i've got had the gnawing wish to express the extensive motivational sig nificance of the attributional belief that i've got espoused and to give absolutely the argument that this framework has earned a rightful position along different major theories of motivation. moreover, fresh investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of have an effect on, therefore delivering the impetus to embark upon an in depth dialogue of emotion and to clarify the relation among emotion and motivation from an attributional standpoint. The presentation of a unified thought of motivation and emotion is the objective of this ebook. My extra particular goals within the chapters to persist with are to: 1) define the elemental princi ples that i feel represent an enough conception of motivation; 2) show what I understand to be the conceptual contributions of the viewpoint endorsed through my col leagues and me; three) Summarize the empirical relatives, succeed in a few definitive con clusions, and indicate the extra equivocal empirical institutions in response to hypotheses derived from our specific attribution concept; and four) make clear questions which have been raised approximately this notion and supply new fabric for nonetheless extra scrutiny. In so doing, the development blocks (if any) laid down by means of the attributional con ception might be with no trouble pointed out and unknown juries of current and destiny friends can then greater confirm the price of this medical product.
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Extra resources for An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion
44 The Structure of Perceived Causality In this chapter I outline two approaches to the studies of the underlying properties or structure of perceived causes. , 1971). The general procedure was to group logically a set of causes (thesis), discover an apparent contradiction in reasoning by demonstrating that causes within the same grouping differ in some respect (antithesis), and then resolve the inconsistency by postulating an additional causal dimension to capture this dissimilarity (synthesis).
These studies generated data about the salience of particular attributions and were assumed to provide prima facie evidence for the importance of attributional thinking in everyday life (see reviews in Kelley & Michela, 1980; Weiner, 198Oc). It was only after many such investigations that psychologists began to raise doubts about the methodology being used. The basic dissatisfaction was that the experimental procedure was reactive; that is, the responses of the subjects were believed to be influenced by the experimenter's introducing the notion of causality (Bern, 1972; Enzle & Shopflacher, 1978; Wortman & Dintzer, 1978).
They described a Indirect Attributional Indexes 31 hypothetical situation of a student being unjustly treated by a teacher and asked subjects to write down ''all questions and thoughts coming to mind in the described situation:' In addition, two experimental conditions were created by varying the degree of involvement of the respondent. In one condition they were to put themselves in the place of the student, whereas in a second condition they merely were to assume that they observed the event.