Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen by Michael Frank Hordeski

By Michael Frank Hordeski

Newly revised, the second one variation of this pioneering paintings addresses rising components affecting strength construction and use, together with the provision and desirability of varied fuels. The textual content presents large dialogue on hydrogen resources, either sunlight and nuclear, and gasoline mobile expertise, in addition to different substitute fuels equivalent to biomass, and wind strength. It delves into fee research, regulatory concerns, obstacles to implementation, conversion and garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gasoline chain potency, air emission concerns, and security. The e-book additionally covers normal gasoline hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, and steam reforming.

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Studies have indicated that large-scale storage could take place with gaseous hydrogen underground in aquifers, depleted petroleum or natural gas reservoirs or man made caverns from mining Fuels and Trends 23 operations. One of the obstacles in using hydrogen as an automotive fuel is storing it safely and efficiently on board vehicles. Although it is possible to store hydrogen as a high pressure gas in steel containers, disadvantages exist because of the weight of the storage containers and the safety hazard in the event of an accident.

These early hydrid systems were shown to be safe for storing hydrogen in automobiles, but they are almost 5 times heavier than liquid hydrogen storage systems. Other hydrid systems do not have such weight penalties and include magnesium nickel alloys, non-metallic polymers, or liquid hydrid systems that use engine heat to disassociate fuels like methanol into a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In an iron titanium hydrid system, for a range of 300 miles (480 kilometers), the tank could weigh about 5,600 pounds (2,520 kilograms).

These hydrocarbons are in open chain and are often written in a condensed form as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C4H10 or C5H12. The general formula for the hydrocarbons of the methane series is CnH2n + 2. The Evolution of Oil 43 Table 2-4. First Five Hydrocarbons of the Methyl Group ———————————————————————————— Methane (CH3-H) Ethane (CH3-CH3) Propane (CH3-CH3-CH3) Butane (CH3-CH2-CH2-HH3) Pentane (CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3) ———————————————————————————— Most crude oils are made up of these hydrocarbons: Gaseous hydrocarbons from CH4 to C4H10 Liquid hydrocarbons from C5H12 to C15H32 Solid hydrocarbons from C16H34 to C35H72 An oil containing only 35 hydrocarbons would be regarded as very simple.

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