Alexander A Friedmann: The Man who Made the Universe Expand by Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin,

By Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin, Alexander Dron, Michael Burov

Our universe will be defined mathematically by means of an easy version constructed in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) via Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). with out the good thing about observational proof, Friedmann anticipated that the complete universe may extend and evolve with time. This striking prediction was once proven seven years later via Edwin Hubble. Its originator, regrettably did not dwell to appreciate this triumph. This shiny biography of an exceptional scientist units his lifestyles and paintings opposed to a large backdrop of the heritage of cosmological experiences and its significant gamers, reminiscent of Einstein and others. The e-book is a window on Friedmann's university and collage years, army carrier, and educating and study in the course of a seminal interval of Soviet heritage. The authors comprise precise archival fabric, resembling Friedmann's letters from the Russian entrance, in addition to modern documents and recollections of associates. there's a certain therapy of his paintings in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set within the context of the association of Soviet technological know-how on the time.

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We skip over here some of Friedmann's other letters to Ehrenfest. They contain a discussion of some mathematical questions which interested Friedmann, particularly those concerning the theory of functional equations,5 as well as critical comments on Khvolson's general course of physics. They also contain philosophical speculations (sometimes rather naive) about the role of axiomatics in mathematics, physical science and even literature. ) in the town of Tim, he was quite a young man! St. Petersburg, August 18, 1908.

Bobylev. Against some courses that Friedmann attended in his final years at college his record book has the note "exempted" - probably exempted from tests or examinations because Professors Bobylev, Steklov and Sokhotsky were sure of the results without examinations. 30 University years, 1906-14 Friedmann in the early 1910s. Steklov's diaries Information about Friedmann the student, and documentary evidence of his activities, can be found in V. A. Steklov's diaries. Reading them gives one a vivid impression of their author, and one cannot but feel affection for him.

The text of A. F. Gavrilov's memoirs seems to be written as a commentary to these notes: "The University was in turmoil, the students spent half their time at meetings, students' strikes accompanied the people's fight against the government. " And again Steklov's notes. October 21. Tamarkin and Friedmann came to see me this evening. They are going to organize a mathematics reading room. Asked me to be their supervisor. Declined, but they deserve help. November 22. Tamarkin and Friedmann came to see me this evening .

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