By Giacomo Zaccone, Ernest Cutz, Dirk Adriaensen
This booklet offers a finished and updated account of the knowledge to be had at the morphological, physiological and evolutionary features of specialised cells disbursed in the epithelia of the airlines within the vertebrates. loads of paintings has been performed at the phone and molecular biology of those cells that are considered as as oxygen receptor neuroepithelial cells. those chemoreceptors that have been conserved all through evolution have neuroendocrine services sporting their signs to the critical apprehensive system.
The chemoreceptor cells are sensors which notice the sign adjustments within the exterior and inner environments, and play a key function within the survival of assorted species. experiences addressed to the chemoreceptor telephone platforms within the airlines are of serious significance for investigating their reaction to adjustments within the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations within the setting because the way forward for the planet earth is being threatened via worldwide warming and weather change.
Praise for the book:
…This quantity will be of precise curiosity to researchers who're taken with the evolution of vertebrate breathing keep an eye on ordinarily and the legislation of air flow in nonmammalian vertebrates specifically. ―Wayne L. Silver, Wake wooded area collage, in The Quarterly evaluation of Biology, quantity eighty five, quantity 2
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Additional resources for Airway Chemoreceptors in Vertebrates
Transmission electron micrograph of a single NEC of the tiger salamander gill. Shown are the nucleus of a NEC (N), a neighbouring basal cell (BC), Golgi complexes (asterisk denotes general region), cytoplasmic dense-cored vesicles (arrows), and numerous mitochondria. Modified from Goniakowska-Witaliñska et al. (1993) with permission. , 2006). 12 | Airway Chemoreceptors in the Vertebrates Figure 6: Some gill NECs in aquatic vertebrates do not contain 5-HT. Confocal images of the gills of zebrafish (A), goldfish (B), and Xenopus laevis (C) labelled with antibodies against 5-HT, SV2, and zn-12 (in A).
2002). Similarly, cutaneous diffusion plays a more significant role than O2 transport in developing Xenopus compared to adults (Territo and Burggren, 1998). 22 | Airway Chemoreceptors in the Vertebrates As development proceeds in fish and simple diffusion can no longer sustain increasing O2 and metabolic requirements, reliance on cutaneous respiration decreases and the developing gills become the primary site of gas exchange. In zebrafish, for example, complete formation of the gills occurs relatively late in development, and larvae become completely reliant on the gills for respiration at about 21 dpf (Rombough, 2002; Jonz and Nurse, 2006).
J Exp Biol. 209:1261-1273. E. 2002. Chronic hypoxia-induced morphological and neurochemical changes in the carotid body. Microsc Res Tech. 59:168-177. K. 1967. Elements of Chordate Anatomy. McGraw-Hill, New York. L. 2007. Acute oxygen-sensing mechanisms. N Engl J Med. 353:2042-2055. R. 1996. The respiratory development of Atlantic salmon. II. Partitioning of oxygen uptake among gills, yolk sac and body surfaces. J Exp Biol. 199:2737-2744. J. 2004. Hemoxygenase-2 is an oxygen sensor for a calcium-sensitive potassium channel.