By von Kármán, Theodore
Fascinating, reader-friendly chronicle by means of a well-known pioneer in aerodynamic study lines the advance of dynamic flight from the time of Newton throughout the twentieth century. It recounts struggles of engineers and physicists with difficulties linked to raise, drag, balance, aeroelasticity, and the sound barrier. The e-book comprises seventy two figures.
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Extra info for Aerodynamics - Selected Topics in the Light of Their Historical Development
If the flow is vortex-free, this product has the same value independent of the choice of the curve. Thus we have a general definition oi circulation, generalized from a circulatory flow with circular streamlines. If we take a closed curve that does not go around the body but encloses fluid only, then the circulation around the curve will be zero. Two-Dimensional Wing Theory (Wing of Incfinite Span) For the lift problem, as far as an infinite wing of constant section is concerned, we assume that the flow around the wing is vortex-free.
P is the density of fluid, U is the velocity of relative stream, and L is the length of the plate. Curves I, 2, and 3 represent Newton’s theory, Rayleigh’s theory, and the present-day (circulation) theory of lift, respectively. 0 c 3/ To summarize what has been said about the state of affairs around 1900,when mechanical flight was first realized: At that time there was a science, which can be called semiempirical aerodynamics, only loosely connected with the rational theory of the mechanics of fluids.
RESEARCH BEFORE FLIGHT Mathatical Fluid Mechanics Now very briefly let us take a look at the other direction of development, theoretical science. After Newton’s theory was published, mathematiciansrecognized the shortcomings of his method. They realized that the problem is not so simple as Newton thought. We cannot replace the flow by parallel motion, as Newton tried to do in an approximate fashion (Fig. 5). The first man to develop what we may call a rational theory of air resistance was D’Alembert, a great mathematician and one of the Encyclopedists of France.