Advanced Optical Imaging Theory by Min Gu

By Min Gu

Optical microscopy and linked applied sciences complicated fast after the advent of the laser. The recommendations have influenced extra improvement of optical imaging conception, together with three-dimensional microscopy imaging concept in spatial and frequency domain names, the idea of imaging with ultrashort-pulse beams and aberration concept for high-numerical-aperture targets. This ebook introduces those new theories when it comes to smooth optical microscopy. It contains seven chapters together with an creation. The chapters are geared up to lessen cross-referencing. Comparisons with classical imaging thought are made whilst the hot imaging idea is brought. The ebook is meant for senior undergraduate scholars in classes on optoelectronics, optical engineering, photonics, biophotonics and utilized physics, when they have accomplished sleek optics or an analogous topic. it's also a reference for different scientists attracted to the field.

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1) Using the transmittance of the lens given by Eq. 22 ) . A. -. 2f - . 2) Substituting Eq. 2) into the Fresnel diffraction formula in Eq. 5) yields the field in the image plane: 52 Fig. 1 3. Point Spread Function Analysis Three coordinate systems for analysing the imaging performance with a single lens. 3) Without affecting the final intensity expression, we have ignored a pre-negative sign in Eq. 3). To simplify Eq. 3), let us expand the two quadratic phase factors in Eq. 4) This expression gives a general relation between a thin object and its image.

9a). The corresponding phase variation in a transverse plane is shown in Fig. 9b. = 0 yla yla (a) (b) '5 Fig. 9 Intensity (a) and phase (b) distributions in a transverse plane (N = 10) for a phase singularity wave of topological charge one. 16]. 16]. 17 M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980). J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968). J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Adam Hilgar, Bristal, 1986). E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1987).

Eq. 18) reduces to Eq. 9) for a circular aperture. Note that the contribution of the wavelets from the edge has a 1r-phase change compared with the direct beam. Under the condition of Eq. 17), Eq. 19) The first two terms in Eq. 19) give two periods, 2tr and Tria. The former corresponds to a fast periodic variation resulting from the interference between the direct beam from the centre of the aperture and the wavelets from the points of radius a on the edge, while the latter gives a slow periodic change caused by the interference between the innermost and outermost points on the edge.

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