By William P. Leahy
Professor Leahy recounts the educational tensions among spiritual ideals and highbrow inquiry, and discover the social adjustments that experience affected greater schooling and American Catholicism all through this century. He makes an attempt to provide an explanation for why the numerous progress of Catholic schools and universities used to be no longer consistently matched through concomitant educational esteem within the better international of yank greater schooling.
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Additional info for Adapting to America: Catholics, Jesuits, and Higher Education in the Twentieth Century
In the process, it also made elective courses, graduate schools, and professional training standard features of higher education in the United States. By the 1880s, secularization and curriculum reform had thrown the old educational order, which relied heavily on religion and the classics, into confusion. Consequently, American education found it difficult to solve serious structural problems caused by surging enrollment. The high school had emerged as a new division in the educational system, Page 19 but it varied in quality and scope.
4 To provide perspective on major changes in American Catholicism and Catholic higher education since 1900, the opening section of this study reviews the evolution of the Catholic community before World War I, especially in comparison with Jews and Protestants. It also summarizes the administrative and academic reforms which reshaped the American educational scene in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Chapter 2 focuses on the conflict between the religious beliefs and educational objectives of Catholics and the increasingly competitive, professionalized American academic environment.
In addition, James McMaster, the lay editor of the New York Freeman's Journal, and other vocal opponents of public education succeeded in obtaining a directive from the Vatican in 1875 prescribing that Catholic children should not attend state-supported schools unless dangers to the faith were removed. Under pressure from Rome, the American bishops issued a decree at the Third Council of Baltimore in 1884 calling on every parish to establish an elementary school within two years, though refusing to order excommunication for Catholics sending offspring to the public system.