By David Brown, Michael J. Harrison (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Sociology of Industrialisation: an introduction
1961) Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul). - (1968) Economy and Sociery, ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich, vols land 2 (New York: Bedminster Press). 3 Division of Labour The sociologist seeks to make generalisations about societies. This is one of the central difficulties which preoccupies sociological methodology. Human societies and the individuals within them have a persistent tendency to vary, to be unique, to such an extent that such generalities cease to be either significant on the one hand, or indeed true on the other hand.
This is what repressive law materially represents, at least in so far as it is essential. The part that it plays in the general integration of society evidently depends upon the greater or lesser extent of the sociallife which the common conscience embraces and regulates. (1964, p. 109) Let us summarise. Durkheim wishes to establish a set oftypical characteristics which promote social solidarity in societies of an undifferentiated nature, 'normal' societies which have a low level of division of labour.
Third, it was as a critique of this model of man in free market society and its perceived implications that sociology arose, both as a celebrant of rhe model, a critic of this model, and in many cases, an alternative to this model. Fourth, the assumptions behind the belief in the model reveal much of the 'real' state of society that enabled men to believe in it so avidly. The constant conftict and contradiction between the belief in the model and the realities ofsociallife do much to explain the dynamics ofEnglish society and the actions of the business community in Britain throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.