By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This book provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken via fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the manufactured from wide learn by way of the authors and individuals in box tools and crew research classes on the college of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters masking the segmental phonology, tone process, morphology, and sentence constitution, by way of appendices at the Nzadi humans and heritage and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. ahead of this paintings, Nzadi had no longer even been pointed out within the literature, and at the present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the examine of Nzadi is its substantial grammatical simplification, leading to constructions relatively assorted from these of canonical Bantu languages. even if Nzadi has misplaced many of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable type prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun category contract in genitive buildings. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause structures, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet entire grammar offers huge insurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that may be of power curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this sector of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, common linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
32] NC: Cs: /mb/ /nd/ /Ng/ [ndz] /ts/ /ks/ /fs/ /ms/ [nts] /Ns/ /rs/ /nk/ (7) (4) (7) (1) (3) (2) (1) (1) (4) (6) (1) (3) pambú mpçndç@ màáNgu&l mpandzí o-dyatsa o-vuksa o-dEfsa o-kumsa o-bán@tsa o-gçNsa o-sarsa o-sçnka ‘worm’ ‘millet’ ‘mango’ ‘rib’ ‘to lead’ ‘to mix’ ‘to lend’ ‘to praise’ ‘to think’ ‘to expand’ ‘to help’ ‘to write’ cf. m-pE@mbE@ o-bçndçl o-zaNgul ‘white’ ‘to please’ ‘to lift up’ o-zitsa o-niksa o-dE^f ‘to obey’ ‘to grind’ ‘to borrow’ o-yuntsa o-bçNsa ‘to try’ ‘to repair’ o-mçnka ‘shine, be visible’ In the above table [ndz] is in brackets because it could derive from either /ndz/ or /nz/.
As seen, when directly preceded by kó, it becomes H-H. á bç& ‘to them’. 34] cf. 1). Either way the prefix vowel is H and the stem becomes HL unless it is underlyingly LH. The only difference between nouns and pronouns concerns ndé ‘him/her’. e. kó m@b vâ ‘to the dog’, ndé does not change. The pronoun ndé thus appears to be treated as if it were a LH rising tone whose H does not change. 33]. The question is how to interpret the above tonal changes. On the one hand they might be viewed as arbitrary, with HL replacing L, H, and LHL stem tones after kó (and genitive é, to be discussed below).
Cw or Cy) sequence. The maximum size monosyllabic stem is thus CGVVC, of which six entries occur in the lexicon including the verbs o-byE@E$r ‘to drum’, o-nwaan ‘to fight’, and o-swáàn ‘to argue’. e. not with a Cw or Cy sequence or on a long vowel. ) L and HL, on the other hand, can appear with any syllable shape. g. *dé- ‘eat’, *kú- ‘to die’, *pá- ‘give’. The H of CV syllables is thus in complementary distribution with the HL of other syllable shapes. 49] 53 L-L L-HL L-H o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-CV L L -L L H -L L H -L As seen, verb roots have either /H/ or /L/ tone.